# 什么是ACM？

ACM国际大学生程序设计竞赛（英语：ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest, ICPC）是由美国计算机协会（ACM）主办的，一项旨在展示大学生创新能力、团队精神和在压力下编写程序、分析和解决问题能力的年度竞赛。经过30多年的发展，ACM国际大学生程序设计竞赛已经发展成为最具影响力的大学生计算机竞赛。

除此之外，ACM现已广泛指代大部分大学生算法竞赛。

#include < bits/stdc++.h >

传送门：Arbitrage

Arbitrage is the use of discrepancies in currency exchange rates to transform one unit of a currency into more than one unit of the same currency. For example, suppose that 1 US Dollar buys 0.5 British pound, 1 British pound buys 10.0 French francs, and 1 French franc buys 0.21 US dollar. Then, by converting currencies, a clever trader can start with 1 US dollar and buy 0.5

10.00.21 = 1.05 US dollars, making a profit of 5 percent.Your job is to write a program that takes a list of currency exchange rates as input and then determines whether arbitrage is possible or not.

Several currency exchange points are working in our city. Let us suppose that each point specializes in two particular currencies and performs exchange operations only with these currencies. There can be several points specializing in the same pair of currencies. Each point has its own exchange rates, exchange rate of A to B is the quantity of B you get for 1A. Also each exchange point has some commission, the sum you have to pay for your exchange operation. Commission is always collected in source currency.

For example, if you want to exchange 100 US Dollars into Russian Rubles at the exchange point, where the exchange rate is 29.75, and the commission is 0.39 you will get (100 - 0.39) * 29.75 = 2963.3975RUR.

You surely know that there are N different currencies you can deal with in our city. Let us assign unique integer number from 1 to N to each currency. Then each exchange point can be described with 6 numbers: integer A and B - numbers of currencies it exchanges, and real RAB, CAB, RBA and CBA - exchange rates and commissions when exchanging A to B and B to A respectively.

Nick has some money in currency S and wonders if he can somehow, after some exchange operations, increase his capital. Of course, he wants to have his money in currency S in the end. Help him to answer this difficult question. Nick must always have non-negative sum of money while making his operations.

传送门：Photo of The Sky

Pavel made a photo of his favourite stars in the sky. His camera takes a photo of all points of the sky that belong to some rectangle with sides parallel to the coordinate axes.

Strictly speaking, it makes a photo of all points with coordinates (x,y), such that x1≤x≤x2 and y1≤y≤y2, where (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) are coordinates of the left bottom and the right top corners of the rectangle being photographed. The area of this rectangle can be zero.

After taking the photo, Pavel wrote down coordinates of n of his favourite stars which appeared in the photo. These points are not necessarily distinct, there can be multiple stars in the same point of the sky.

Pavel has lost his camera recently and wants to buy a similar one. Specifically, he wants to know the dimensions of the photo he took earlier. Unfortunately, the photo is also lost. His notes are also of not much help; numbers are written in random order all over his notepad, so it’s impossible to tell which numbers specify coordinates of which points.

Pavel asked you to help him to determine what are the possible dimensions of the photo according to his notes. As there are multiple possible answers, find the dimensions with the minimal possible area of the rectangle.

Ivan has n songs on his phone. The size of the i-th song is ai bytes. Ivan also has a flash drive which can hold at most m bytes in total. Initially, his flash drive is empty.

Ivan wants to copy all n songs to the flash drive. He can compress the songs. If he compresses the i-th song, the size of the i-th song reduces from ai to bi bytes (bi<ai).

Ivan can compress any subset of the songs (possibly empty) and copy all the songs to his flash drive if the sum of their sizes is at most m. He can compress any subset of the songs (not necessarily contiguous).

Ivan wants to find the minimum number of songs he needs to compress in such a way that all his songs fit on the drive (i.e. the sum of their sizes is less than or equal to m).

If it is impossible to copy all the songs (even if Ivan compresses all the songs), print “-1”. Otherwise print the minimum number of songs Ivan needs to compress.

传送门：The Phone Number

Mrs. Smith is trying to contact her husband, John Smith, but she forgot the secret phone number!

The only thing Mrs. Smith remembered was that any permutation of n can be a secret phone number. Only those permutations that minimize secret value might be the phone of her husband.

The sequence of n integers is called a permutation if it contains all integers from 1 to n exactly once.

The secret value of a phone number is defined as the sum of the length of the longest increasing subsequence (LIS) and length of the longest decreasing subsequence (LDS).

A subsequence ai1,ai2,…,aik where 1≤i1<i2<…<ik≤n is called increasing if ai1<ai2<ai3<…<aik. If ai1>ai2>ai3>…>aik, a subsequence is called decreasing. An increasing/decreasing subsequence is called longest if it has maximum length among all increasing/decreasing subsequences.

For example, if there is a permutation [6,4,1,7,2,3,5], LIS of this permutation will be [1,2,3,5], so the length of LIS is equal to 4. LDS can be [6,4,1], [6,4,2], or [6,4,3], so the length of LDS is 3.

Note, the lengths of LIS and LDS can be different.

So please help Mrs. Smith to find a permutation that gives a minimum sum of lengths of LIS and LDS.

On Planet MM-21, after their Olympic games this year, curling is getting popular. But the rules are somewhat different from ours. The game is played on an ice game board on which a square mesh is marked. They use only a single stone. The purpose of the game is to lead the stone from the start to the goal with the minimum number of moves.

Fig. 1 shows an example of a game board. Some squares may be occupied with blocks. There are two special squares namely the start and the goal, which are not occupied with blocks. (These two squares are distinct.) Once the stone begins to move, it will proceed until it hits a block. In order to bring the stone to the goal, you may have to stop the stone by hitting it against a block, and throw again.

Fig. 1: Example of board (S: start, G: goal)The movement of the stone obeys the following rules:

At the beginning, the stone stands still at the start square.

The movements of the stone are restricted to x and y directions. Diagonal moves are prohibited.

When the stone stands still, you can make it moving by throwing it. You may throw it to any direction unless it is blocked immediately(Fig. 2(a)).

Once thrown, the stone keeps moving to the same direction until one of the following occurs:

The stone hits a block (Fig. 2(b), (c)).

The stone stops at the square next to the block it hit.

The block disappears.

The stone gets out of the board.

The game ends in failure.

The stone reaches the goal square.

The stone stops there and the game ends in success.

You cannot throw the stone more than 10 times in a game. If the stone does not reach the goal in 10 moves, the game ends in failure.

Fig. 2: Stone movementsUnder the rules, we would like to know whether the stone at the start can reach the goal and, if yes, the minimum number of moves required.

With the initial configuration shown in Fig. 1, 4 moves are required to bring the stone from the start to the goal. The route is shown in Fig. 3(a). Notice when the stone reaches the goal, the board configuration has changed as in Fig. 3(b).

Fig. 3: The solution for Fig. D-1 and the final board configuration